The study results show that colored images with no music playing in the background have a substantial impact on the number of accurately recognized images, as well as the number of falsely recalled images. Studies should be using a control group to better analyze the data in the future. This study was based on the concept of learning, attention, memory and recall and it was a recognition experiment. The study done composed a 2X2 design, totalling a total of four conditions. It consisted of displaying images to a person for a certain amount of time and then testing the memory by calculating the number of images that were correctly recognized by the subjects.
The study included two independent variables, the color of the images (colored vs greyscale) and whether or not music was playing in the background (music vs no music). The dependant variable was memory as it is being affected by color and music. The control variables were, the time given during the study period (a minute per trial), the time given during the test period (a minute per trial), the number of images given, and the type of music played in the background (hip-hop). The aim of this study is to analyze whether or not memory recall is affected by testing the number of images correctly recognized by the participants.
Since two independent variables were being tested there were two different hypotheses for each condition. The first hypothesis is that color will have an enhancing effect on the dependent variable (memory). The prediction is that in the conditions when the images are
Moreover, the use of color has found to help and improve in memory concentration as the brain relates images to certain colors making it easier to recognize (Singg, S., & Mull, C. W, 2017). The second hypothesis is that music will have a distracting effect on the dependent variable (memory). The prediction is that in the conditions when music is playing in the background during both the study period and the testing period the scored on the memory test (out of 20) will be lower than in comparison to the conditions when music is not playing in the background. Irrelevant sounds in the background such as music tends to disrupt selective attention and decrease cognitive performance (Banbury, S. P., Macken, W. J., Tremblay, S., & Jones, D. M., 2001).
Furthermore, a study was conducted to understand the role of color in increasing memory performance by Farley and Grant. In this study, the subjects were required to identify either the color or the shape of the two objects presented. As expected, the study showed that the subjects performed better in recognising the color differences compared to the object shapes as the response times were faster (Dzulkifli, 2013). This suggests that color enhances memory performance by increasing an individuals attention levels.
Additionally, another study regarding the effects of auditory distraction on memory was conducted where participants had to correctly write down all the words presented to them while being in a loud room vs being in a silent room. The study showed that the subjects performed poorly when tested in a noisy environment relative to being tested in a quiet environment (Beaman, C. P., Hanczakowski, M., & Jones, D. M., 2014). This suggests that auditory distraction decreases memory performance as it minimizes an individuals attention levels. Therefore, color will have an enhancing effect on memory while music will have a distracting effect on memory.
The study was conducted on eight undergraduate students attending their first year of university. The participants were from various backgrounds. The average age of the study group was 18 years. These participants were students enrolled at the University of Toronto Mississauga campus. There were four females and four males. MaterialsThe experimenter utilized 4 tables with images for this experiment. Each table contained 18 images, altogether, there were 36 colored images and 36 greyscale images.
Trial 1 had 18 colored images presented to the participants and were expected to be recalled later. Trial 2 had 18 colored images presented to the participant while the music was playing in the background and were expected to be recalled later. This was repeated again for trial 3 and trial 4 but this time the images were greyscale. During the test phase, 10 images from the initial sheet of the trial being tested were added onto the recognition sheet and 10 other images were also added, altogether 20 images on the test sheet. These pictures were either colored or greyscale depending on the trial being tested. These sheets were printed out and given to the participants.
Before participating in the experiment, the subjects were asked to fill out a consent form. The task was to visualize the image being presented and circle the images that they recognized from the table once the experimenter indicated to do so. There were 4 different trials, the subject was presented with an initial sheet for the trial being tested. In trial 1, the subject had to observe 18 colored images when there is no music playing in the background for 1 minute. Right after they were presented with a recognition sheet where they had to circle all the images, they recognized from the trial being tested. The recognition sheet consisted of 10 images which were present on the initial sheet and other 10 images which were not present on the initial sheet.
In trial 2, the subject had to observe 18 colored images while there was music playing in the background for 1 minute. Right after they were presented with a recognition sheet where they had to circle all the images, they recognized from the trial being tested while the music playing in the background. This was repeated for trial 3 and trial 4 but with greyscale images. Once all the trials were done, the subjects were asked to score their answers using the answer key provided at the end. They were asked to score the number of images they circled that were not a part of the initial sheet of the trial being tested (false recalls). The 4 responses could be hits, misses, false recalls and correct rejections.
The accuracy of the subjects was measured by subtracting the false recalls from the hits. To elicit a false response, a counterbalanced design was used where the participant sample was divided in half, with one half completing the two conditions in one order and the other half completing the conditions in the reverse order. So, half of the subjects were presented with the two trials consisting of greyscale images and music playing first trial rather than the second. While the other half were presented with the two trials consisting of colored images and music playing in the second trial instead of the first. This was done to remove confounding variables from the study by giving slightly different treatments to different subjects.