How to negotiate successfully

The handbook of Dispute resolution focuses on the seven elements of negotiation developed at the Harvard Negotiation Project and different methods of negotiations.

The first element of negotiation is Interest: Reach a compromise to satisfy your interest. The succeed of good negotiation results to identify and defend your interests and needs of all parties. Interests can be materials such as money, moral (make someone happy), personal (earn respect).

The second element is legitimacy: both parties need to be feeling treated fairly to reach an agreement because they have a common interest. Offer the counterparty a pleasant way to explain his principles.

The third element is relationship: maintain a good relationship with an opponent can permit to easily resolve a disagreement. Separate the problem from the problem. As a result, negotiating can be very stressful because it can weaken or strengthen the relationship. Be trustworthy.

The fourth element is Alternatives and BATNA. It’s likely to be unable to reach an agreement that’s why it’s important to have an alternative. An alternative needs to be articulate to understand the risks and costs of your and their BATNA. In this case, an alternative is a choice that you can make if the negotiation fails.

The fifth element is options: Possible arrangements or elements of a potential accord which negotiators can probably accept. Options help to please the interests of the parties. Options are the best way to meet the interests of both parties.

The sixth element is commitment. When the negotiation reaches an agreement both parties commit such as political undertaking, ecological or social commitment to finalize negotiation. (All of the implementation issues need to be included).

The last one is communication: Parties debate the six previous elements to settle the agreement. Listening carefully to the counterpart: listen to understand and speak to be understood. However, defining a goal is the key to negotiate. Have an agreement that respects both interests. Use the alternatives of the counterparty as their weakness: use their weakness against them.

The second part of the document is about the Positional Bargaining method. Different parties defend their position on the argument then negotiates to find common ground. For example, Bargaining about a price: Parties have a common interest ( the customer wants the product and the supplier want to sell his product) that’s why they need to find a middle ground and resolved the dispute.

Favor and Ledgers method: One party ask for a « favor » in

exchange for returning the favor in the future. Negotiators maintain a “ledger” to who record owes what. The chicken method: Negotiators bluff by coming up with extreme measures to destabilize the opponent and have what they want. This tactic can be risked when the parties can’t turn back and undertake the measures. These methods don’t contribute to conduct good negotiation for the reasons set out below: No efficient way to reach agreement, The accord tend to ignore the other party’s interests.

Ego tends to get involved in the negotiation. This method heartens stubbornness and tends to hurt the counterpart. The problem-solving approach: Work with the counterpart as colleagues to be able to reach a compromise. Privilege interests than positions. Maintain and cement a friendship rather than creating an unhealthy atmosphere