In fact, it is estimated that Honey bees, bumblebees and wild bees, bring out at least 22 billion EUR each year to the European agriculture industry 5. Considering that it has nutritional values very beneficial to human health, the honey is one of the most consumed and commercialized product, in fact the European Union is the second largest honey producer behind China. There are 600 000 beekeepers and 17 million hives in the EU producing around 250 000 tons of honey every year. Despite this the European production is not satisfied. In 2016, the EU imported about 200 000 tons of honey, 40% of which came from China, according to the European parliament 6.For this reason, guidelines for the general and specific compositions of the main honey varieties that can be marketed in European countries was established by the Commission of the European Communities in Council Directive DENLEG 2000/ (Council Directive, 2000) in order to control the quality of honey and limit the risks of fraud. The floral origin, physicochemical properties, organoleptic characteristics and regional provenance are the main characteristic that must be indicated . Honey quality depends mainly on physicochemical parameters, organoleptic properties and geographic provenance . The pollen analysis is also another determining factor of honey quality. It is a critical point in the delimitation of hygienic aspects and determination of honey extraction and filtration . It can be also useful to detect some kinds of adulteration . Pollen analysis of honey or Melissopalynology, is the most common method for identification of the botanical origin.
Nonetheless, an in-depth knowledge of the bioregion and taxa of interest is required to utilize this method . This is why recent researches have proposed replacing this method by a DNA metabarcoding high throughput sequencing (HTS) approach using