To start things off, The Articles of the Confederation would no longer tie together the former colonies because of a lack of government power and insolvable financial difficulties. Consequently, in 1787 the Philadelphia Federal Constitutional Convention gathered. Today our government continues to be built on the changing structure. Widespread or undeveloped large areas of northern and western parts of the State in 1790 and many other regions were sparingly inhabited. The State introduced expansive property policies, allocated “donation land” to radical soldiers free of charge, and sold actual colonists certain lands at an affordable price. There was considerable legal confusion about conflicting land-distribution and land companies ‘ operations and overly optimistic investors.
By 1860, the population was dispersed all over the country, with the possible exception of the northern states. Urbanization was increased, but rural life remained strong with large amounts of people involved in agriculture. The immigrant waves continued to grow thanks to many Irish people escaping the shortage of potatoes in the late 1840s, yet at the same time Germans escaped the economic uncertainty in their country. By 1840, the Gradual Emancipation Act of 1780 brought down to 64, the 3737 African American slaves of 1790 and by 1850 all African Americans in Pennsylvania had freedom unless they were southerners. In 1790, 6,500 people were free from the Black community, up to 57,000 in 1860.
In 1837 there was a conference to reform the laws of the State and bring in a new Constitution. In 1838, the resulting Constitution lowered the power of the governor, increased the number of elections and reduced mandates. In state, people are given a bigger voice and shielded from political abuses. Despite African American protests in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, free African Americans were nevertheless denounced. The combustion of Philadelphia Pennsylvania Hall, a new center for legislation operations, that year revealed that the new constitution coincided with a wake-up call to abolish and to ensure the equality of races. This preceded the Civil War.
The term “underground” may have come from Pennsylvania where many citizens helped to escape the freedom of slaves in Canada. Among the Pennsylvanian women who led anti-slavery were Anna Dickinson, Lucretia Mott, Ann Preston and Jane Swisshelm. After his reelection in the House of Representatives in 1859, Thaddeus Stevens was an uncompromising enemy of slavery in Congress. The abolitionist leaders in Pennsylvania were white as well as African American. African American pioneers involved public appeals such as James Forten and Martin R. Delany; Robert Purvis and William Still, Underground workers; the literary advocate and his brother George; and William Parker, the 1851 Christian Riot protester against the slave huntsmen. During this period, African Americans made many cultural advances. The Philadelphia reading rooms were organized by William Whipper. The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church was established by Rev. abs. Abs. Jones in 1794 in Philadelphia, and the Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia. A Congregation of the African Methodist Episcopal Church established the First African American Church in Pittsburgh in 1822.