However, this important level of trade in production seems to be unequally distributed across countries. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are particularly marginalized in this increase in the volume of international trade. These accounted for only 2% of trade in 2005 according to the UNCTAD report. In 2003, the same report already noted the sub-Saharan countries’ sluggishness in world trade and explained this by the failures of diversification strategies through a considerable dependence of these countries on commodities. low value-added, whose price instability could hinder economic growth (Kom, 2009).
Thus, to avoid being out of the running in this global economic competition, Cameroon, like other developing countries, faces a daunting challenge: it needs to enhance its growth and reduce poverty in order to succeed. its integration into the global economy. This justifies, on the one hand, the implementation of strategies aimed at making Cameroon an emerging country by 2035. To increase its trade, Cameroon will have to increase substantially and sustainably growth rate of real GDP per capita, which will boost its degree of openness through imports. In this regard, Otrou (2007) demonstrates that there are several factors that can influence foreign trade, including population, GDP / capita, investment rate and many others.
Fontagné and Pajot (1998) show that foreign direct investment (FDI) has an impact on foreign trade and thus determines trade between countries. For example, Cameroon has embarked on policies aimed at attracting international capital flows and hence foreign direct investment (FDI). Indeed, as Alava (2006) demonstrates, if in the 1980s FDI was considered a threat to national sovereignty because multinational firms were suspected of reducing social welfare, today we are witnessing to a radical change in the attitude of developing countries which have adopted favorable policies in their policies.
Thus, the weakness of
FDI inflows have increased by a record 19 per cent in 1997, and again by 10 per cent in 1998 to about $ 440 billion (UNCTAD, 1998). According to UNCTAD (2001) 5, the share of developing countries in total FDI inflows increased from 26% in 1980 to 37% in 1997, and their share of total outflows from 3% in 1980 to 14%. in 1997. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, incoming FDI inflows to Cameroon (in USD million) were 538, 243 and 507 respectively (UNCTAD, 2013) 6.
Given that Cameroon has been receiving more and more FDI for a few decades, and that FDI has a considerable influence on foreign trade, it would be necessary to ask the following question: what is the impact of FDI on FDI? foreign trade in Cameroon? The literature on the influence of foreign direct investment on foreign trade is very broad and controversial. The theoretical work of Mundell (1957) 7 shows that FDI negatively influences foreign trade (substitution effect).