The role of user-generated content in brand awareness

Literature:Brand awareness is defined as the extent to which consumers are familiar with the qualities or image of a particular brand of goods or services. (Online Oxford Dictionary). (Keller 1993) indicates that, brand awareness is the consumer’s ability to identify and remember a particular brand and the capability to connect the features of the brand with its value. According to (Pae et al., 2002), even if there are no other specific brand associations, consumers would still prefer to buy a brand that is well established and familiar to them. Therefore, when consumers perceive that a brand has high awareness, a credible brand would be likely to exert a larger impact on their brand purchase intention than when the brand’s awareness is low, indicating a moderating effect of brand awareness. (Wang & Yang 2010).

In the automotive context (Raji, Rashid & Ishak 2018) indicated that there are two singular terms to explain the understanding of awareness of automotive brands. These terms are ‘globally known’ and ‘country-of-origin’.On that account, the global brand and country-of-origin are important factors for enhancing the acceptance of automotive brands among consumers. Even though not in the context of automotive brands, previous researchers such as Basfirinci (2013) have demonstrated that the reputation and the characteristics of a brand’s origin in the market, can refer to the image as well as the consumers’ perception of said brand. H1: Brand awareness has a positive impact on consumers’ purchase intention in the automotive industry.

Definition

User-generated is defined as denoting or relating to material on a website that is voluntarily contributed by members of the public who use the site. (Oxford online Dictionary). UGC is all kinds of communication that are generated from and between consumers on social media (Schivinski 2011). The term user-generated content is usually applied to describe the various forms of media content that are publicly available and created by Internet users (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). Fundamentally, UGCs are the types of contents that are created about a brand by some consumers for other consumers’ consumption. Thus, consumers have become co-authors of brand-related contents because social media offers them the opportunity to publish and share self-generated contents between multitudes of friends and followers (Zailskaite-jakste and Kuvykaite 2012).According to (Kabadayi and Price 2014), these forms of interactivity and engagement serve as a source of information to other consumers, allow brand owners to gain feedback. The review of past studies revealed that word-of-mouth (WOM) is one of the most importantsurrogates for discussing UGC among other typologies, which include online review andblogging (Chen, Fay, and Wang 2011; Smith, Fischer, and Yongjian 2012).H2: User generated content has a positive impact on consumers’ purchase intention in the automotive industry.

Measurement scales

Attitude of Tunisian consumers towards functional food The variables were used to measure the purchase intention of Tunisian consumers toward carsBrand awareness (BA)1. Capable of remembering car dealer DTS Motors symbol2. Recognize car dealer DTS MOTORS among other competitors3. Be aware of car dealer DTS MOTORS presence4. Give own opinion of car dealer DTS MOTORS brandBrand equity (BE)1. Make sense to buy car brand X although other brands resemble carbrand X characteristics2. Make sense to buy car brand X although other brands have similarcharacteristics3. Make sense to buy car brand X instead of any other brands even if theyhave the same quality4. Make sense to buy car brand X instead of any other brands even if theyare in the same price5. If other brands are not different from car brand X in any way, it seemssmarter to buy car brand XWord of mouth (WOM) 1. People talk in detail about when providing car brand X2. Many people recommended car brand X3. I only hear positive things about car brand X4. No one warned me of disadvantages when deciding to purchase carbrand X5. I got recommendations from friends/family/experts to buy car brand X6. I never heard negative things about car brand XCountry of origin (COO) 1. Country image in terms of automotive innovation2. Country image in terms of high technology3. Country image in terms of design competence4. Country image in terms of good product process quality5. Country image in terms of prestige6. Country image in terms of developing countryPurchaseintentionPI 1: I will try to buy luxury fashion brands infuture0.571 0.792 0.806 0.588 0.230 0.133PI 2: I intend to purchase luxury fashion goodswithin next year0.909PI 3: The probability that I would buy luxuryPurchaseintention (PI)PI1: I would purchase casual activewear. [0.739]PI2: The probability that I would consider buying activewear is low. R [0.671]PI3: I would consider buying casual activewear. [0.744] (1 to 5 from totally disagree to totally agree). Responses to the questionnaire were coded to 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree).

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